The Enneagram

A Tool for Spiritual Formation

The Enneagram is a powerful self-awareness tool that helps us explore the diverse personality traits, gifts, vices, and “deadly” sins that describe our unique selves. But in addition to being a tool for self-clarity, the Enneagram provides insights on how Christ-like virtues can be cultivated in our lives through a transformational journey of deepening trust in God. Learn more about the history of the Enneagram, the WEPSS Profile that we administer, and our unique approach of companioning others with the Enneagram:

Teachings on the Enneagram have evolved quite a bit over time, and there is not a single known origin or authority on the Enneagram. No individual or faith tradition can claim it as its own. Additionally, there are diverse expressions and approaches, even among Christian practitioners. Below we highlight a few of the Enneagram’s key historical influences:

Evagrius Ponticus (345-399 AD) was a fourth century Christian desert father/monk who taught about eight vices or deadly sins: Gluttony, Lust, Avarice (Greed), Sadness, Anger, Acedia (Sloth), Vainglory (Deceit), and Pride. Teachings about vices and deadly sins have been a prominent feature of Christian spirituality for centuries, and is an important component of today’s Enneagram teachings. Pope Gregory the Great (590 AD) revised the list of vices to what is famously known as the Seven Deadly Sins: Lust, Gluttony, Greed, Sloth, Wrath, Envy, and Pride. Interestingly, in one of his writings on prayer, Evagrius drew a nine-pointed Enneagram figure connected to the biblical number 153 (number of fish in John 21).

Ramon Llull (1232–1316), another notable Christian influencer in the development of the Enneagram was a 13th-14th century Franciscan monk/theologian/mathematician. Llull created several nine-pointed diagrams, including this one published in Ars Brevis in 1307 that highlighted nine virtues of God and nine vices.

The Enneagram diagram consisting of a circle, triangle, and hexad was made public in 1916 by the enigmatic Armenian mystic George Gurdjieff (1875-1949). Gurdjieff traveled widely seeking spiritual wisdom from various traditions including Muslim Sufism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Christianity. Gurdjieff was secretive about where he found the ancient symbol but believed it to be a source of special knowledge about the cosmos because of the mathematical laws (the law of seven and the law of three) it represented.

From ancient times until Gurdjieff, the Enneagram symbol in fact had little to do with personality types. The Enneagram of Personality framework was developed later by Bolivian philosopher Oscar Ichazo (1931-2020) in the 1950s and 60s. Ichazo claimed to receive supernatural revelation about the connection between the Enneagram symbol and the nine personality types while under a trance. One of Ichazo’s pupils, Chilean psychologist Claudio Naranjo (1932-2019) brought the Enneagram of Personality to the United States and integrated it with concepts from Western psychology. He later instructed Catholic teachers who further integrated facets of Christian spirituality with the personality typology.

In summary, there have been diverse historical influences that have shaped what we read about or teach on the Enneagram today. We may find ourselves feeling comfortable about some of these influences, and queasy about some others. What is an appropriate Christian response to the Enneagram? We believe that the content, meanings, and application of Enneagram teachings need to be carefully tested and filtered through our understandings from Scripture. We seek to do our best to integrate the parts that are helpful, and to filter out the parts that are incompatible with our Christian faith.

The goal of most Enneagram assessments today is to help individuals identify their predominant “personality type.” Some assessments adopt a more narrative, interview-style approach while others utilize multiple-choice tests. Our preferred assessment tool is the 200-question Wagner Enneagram Personality Style Scales (WEPSS) that provides three sets of meaningful scores for all nine numbers: total scores, resourceful scores, and less-resourceful scores. Beyond identifying one’s predominant personality style, the WEPSS presents a more holistic picture of how all nine numbers are in play in an individual. Additionally, the WEPSS is the only Enneagram inventory published by a major psychological test company and reviewed in Buros’s Mental Measurements Yearbook, a respected authority in the testing field.

“And we all, who with unveiled faces contemplate the Lord’s glory,
are being transformed into his image with ever-increasing glory,
which comes from the Lord, who is the Spirit.”

2 Corinthians 3:18

At Leadership Transformations, we utilize the Enneagram as a helpful tool for Christian Spiritual Formation. Christian Spiritual Formation can be simply defined as the process of being transformed into Christ’s likeness through the power of the Holy Spirit and in the context of a deepening relationship of love and trust in God. This is the point of whatever we do with the Enneagram. We begin our workshops or consultation sessions with humble prayer, asking the Holy Spirit to help us pay attention to the particular areas in our lives God desires to sanctify and transform in Christlikeness.

The Enneagram is a powerful tool, but we must remember that it is just a tool. The Enneagram is not the end-all be-all of spiritual formation. The Enneagram itself does not transform us, the Holy Spirit does. No human-made tool is without its limitations. If we take an assessment, the results carry no ultimate authority on who we are. But a tool in the hands of a master craftsman can accomplish much. God is the Master Potter, and we are the clay (Isaiah 64:8). The Enneagram is just one of many instruments the Lord might use to shape and form us into something beautiful.

We take an alternative approach to Ichazo’s and Naranjo’s Enneagram of Personality. For one, we de-emphasize the idea that each person is one of nine personality types (or eighteen subtypes if you include the wings). We are so much more than a single number or type. Our unique personalities bear the traits, gifts, virtues, and vices of all nine numbers in varying degrees. Furthermore, we can expect our resonance with the various numbers to shift over the course of our spiritual journeys as we are transformed by the Spirit. We expect to become more like Jesus in multiple aspects, to grow more self-aware of our natural tendencies, and to experience greater freedom from our vices and besetting sins.

One unfortunate byproduct of the personality-type approach is the widespread usage of overly simplistic identity statements like “I am a TWO” or “you are such a NINE” or “she is definitely a FIVE.” Statements like this have the potential to greatly limit people’s thinking about themselves and other people. They can also lead to false assumptions and judgments about oneself and others. Rather than viewing how we are being transformed holistically across the spectrum of all nine numbers, we can grow narrowly focused on becoming a better, more redeemed version of our “type.” While our journey of transformation into Christlikeness often relates to aspects of a predominant personality style, we can anticipate that the Holy Spirit’s work within us will often go beyond those areas as well.

When we companion others with the Enneagram, we explore the WEPSS scores for all nine numbers. The WEPSS provides three sets of meaningful scores for each number: resourceful, less-resourceful and total scores. We prefer to look at each Enneagram number as a set of traits (e.g. gifts, virtues, vices) rather than a personality type. Therefore, an individual may relate with the gifts and strengths, as well as the vices and deadly sins of more than one number. Truly no two individuals are the same—each child of God fearfully and wonderfully made (Psalm 139:13-14)! When you sign up for an Enneagram workshop, consultation, or coaching session with us, our job is to help you explore and consider possible insights from your unique WEPSS profile. We highlight notable scores and patterns from your report, but ultimately the interpretation of the scores and what to do next with them is between you and the Holy Spirit. Our prayer is that we will come away with with a renewed sense of awe at how we personally and specifically reflect our Creator and with greater clarity about how God is at work within to transform us into Christ’s image.

  • Enneagram workshops. In our three-hour workshops, we present a distinctly Christian approach to using the Enneagram for Christian formation. A portion of the workshop is spent introducing the Enneagram through a biblical and theological lens. Each registrant takes an online WEPSS Enneagram assessment in advance of the workshop. With detailed and personalized results in hand, we spend the time together exploring the self-discovery insights offered by this tool.
  • $49 per participant
  • $599 for a private workshop for your group
  • Enneagram consultations for individuals, couples, and teams.
  • $125.00 – Individual WEPSS Enneagram profile + initial 75-minute personal consultation.
  • $199.00 – Couple: 2 WEPSS Profiles + initial 90-Minute Couples Consultation
  • $65.00 – Follow-up 45-minute consultation or coaching session by video or phone (For individuals who have attended an LTI Enneagram workshop or had an initial consultation).
  • $85.00 – Follow-up 45-minute couples consultation or coaching session by video or phone (For individuals who have attended an LTI Enneagram workshop or had an initial consultation).
  • $300.00 – Customized Enneagram Group Consultation
  • Enneagram coaching. Contrary to consultations and workshops where we do most of the talking, in Enneagram coaching, you do most of the talking. In coaching, you generate your own goals for change and transformation, you are in charge of your continued learning, and you are responsible for the action steps you decide to take on. Our role is to ask you thought-provoking questions that continue to fuel your learning, guide you towards action steps, provide shame-free accountability, and to celebrate your progress with you! Contact David Wu for more information about coaching.
  • $75 per 60-minute session, typically two sessions per month for 3-6 months.
  • Training: Companioning Others with the Enneagram. Contact David Wu for more information about training.

Enneagram Consultants

Rick Anderson

Executive Vice President

David Wu

Minister of Spiritual Formation

What Others Are Saying

Lisa Devall-Martin
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"The Enneagram workshop, facilitated by Rick Anderson, was a sacred experience for me. I entered into the time prayerfully (thank you for the opening music), desiring to gain insight into myself and to address my concerns around 'typing' with the results of the assessment. I truly believe that there is no 'typing' or labelling of God's incredibly complex design of the human soul, which was one reason that I have avoided the Enneagram in the past. I chose to step into my resistance so that I could come to a better understanding of the tool. I am able to now see how this tool can increase self-awareness especially regarding the 'shadow side', but I still have an aversion to typing. I literally cringe when I hear someone say, "I'm a ____ (insert number)." Rick repeatedly reminded us that we were "far more than the seven pages in front of us". Upon reflection, there was a particularly moving moment when Rick addressed women in the workshop who are identified as type 8 - Powerful Person. Rick beautifully acknowledged that this Divine design in a woman's life may not have been well received particularly in Christian leadership circles. This resonated with my experiences in church and para-church leadership over the past three decades, so much so, that I left ministry and chose a secular academic route where I was warmly accepted and treated as an equal to my male colleagues. The Lord has brought me full circle, back into ministry, which I am deeply grateful for, and Rick's comments really touched my heart. Thank you!"
Catherine Warner
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"David's teaching was the most helpful of all the info/books I've read on the Enneagram over the past few years. I feel like it finally made sense. I also was able to immediately think through several relationships that are challenging and knowing these people's enneagram...with David's insights, I was able to see solutions and ways to better love these people. I love the whole starting point of seeing this as transformational journey instead of a personality type. That is a BIG win for the Kingdom. We are in ministry full time and I am so excited to share this...and hopefully can have our leaders sign up to learn this as well. I look forward to taking it again and learning more. I'm so excited to use Enneagram the way you are teaching it. Just wonderful and hopeful."
Sherri Grady
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"I have been engaging with this fabulous tool and using the Enneagram in my psychotherapy practice. I resonated deeply with the way David taught the material - specifically the spiritual teaching as well as the metaphors used. I highly recommend this training to everyone - whether you are new to the Enneagram or have been engaging with it for a long time. The teaching is biblical, solid and comprehensive. There are clear and necessary explanations about the importance of how to engage with the Enneagram....and with ALL the journeys that transform into living images of the virtues of Christ. I wish all my psychotherapy clients as well as spiritual directees could attend this!
Linda Hairgrove
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"I have read a lot and attended workshops, but this less formulaic approach is refreshing and makes so much sense. I have been trying to "fit" the emphasis I observe in my own Enneagram type patterns into what I thought was a cohesive approach taking into consideration wings, paths of integration (etc.) and harmony triads. This allows for so much more freedom - and with a particularly strong emphasis on being transformed into Christlikeness seen across the virtues of all types."
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Rick Anderson

Executive Vice President

Rick has a passion for spiritual formation and leadership development. He has completed the Selah Certificate Program in Spiritual Direction through LTI. He has also completed New Way Ministries’ School of Spiritual Direction and the Advanced School, both taught by Dr. Larry Crabb. Rick is a graduate of Biola University’s school of business. Prior to LTI, Rick served as the COO of the Christian Writers Guild and the Director of Finance & Operations at Trinity Law School. He currently serves as a board member for Peregrine Ministries and Beyond Survival. Rick and his wife, Lisa, live in Colorado Springs with their three boys: Cameron, Mitchell, and Jackson. Rick loves spending time with God in nature, laughing with friends and family, exploring new places, fixing things, watching movies, and taking in a strong Colorado thunderstorm. He also enjoys golf, international travel, and woodworking.  “It is such a joy to serve with the incredible people who make up this team and this amazing ministry of spiritual formation/soul care.

Articles by Rick Anderson

David Wu

Director of Online Ministry & Minister of Spiritual Formation

David serves as LTI’s Online Ministry Director and as Senior Faculty of Selah, LTI’s Certificate Program in Spiritual Direction. He is a graduate of Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary (M.Div.,’11) and Selah. Prior to his ministry with LTI, David was involved with overseas missions in East Asia, church planting, and pastoral ministry in the local church. David is passionate about creating prayerful and hospitable space for others to listen to God, whether through leading worship corporately, facilitating soul care retreats, or one-on-one spiritual direction. For fun, David enjoys long hikes, playing the guitar, gluten-free cooking, and pulling weeds. David and his wife and three kids make their home in Sugar Land, Texas. “I first encountered LTI at a soul care retreat during a very low point in my life and ministry. LTI was my spiritual paramedic at just the right time. Today I am so grateful to serve with this incredible team of loving and compassionate soul care-givers.

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